In the garden: pleasant surprises.

I finally finished my garden clean up this past weekend.  I don’t have perennial beds at our new home; my new garden space is a combination of containers on the balcony and a plot at the nearby community garden. Clean up was easy: I had no issues with diseases with my container plants so all the soil was dumped into a large covered tote and left on the balcony for use next season, and the pots were all scrubbed and put into indoor storage so they don’t freeze and crack.  Clean up at the community garden was also a cinch: our garden committee encourages members to leave plants in place and chop and drop them in the spring.  (I am a huge fan of this! Keeping the dried plants in place over winter helps prevent a bit of soil crusting, as the garden is fully exposed during chinook winds and freeze and thaw cycles. The plants may also provide a safe haven for beneficial insects such as ladybugs, and the sunflowers in some of the other plots may be useful for hungry birds).  I did pull the pumpkin and zucchini plants, as they were beset with a vicious case of powdery mildew.

My garlic is planted at the community garden and mulched and hopefully snug for the winter, and I sunk a large container of alpine strawberries into the raised bed there in the hopes that they might survive. (I don’t have any in-ground spaces like I used to).  I’ll winter sow some more strawberry seeds outside in early March as insurance.

ASFPNormandeau

I haven’t had a lot of time to review this year’s gardening season.  It was a challenging one, as far as the weather was concerned. Spring wasn’t gradual and wet; instead, we were blasted out of the gate with mid-summer-like heat and no rain.  Some direct-sown seeds refused to germinate, even with supplemental irrigation. Our summer was hot and filled with forest fire smoke, and we had a couple of severe hailstorms that handily trashed plants in mere seconds.  Many gardeners I talked to fought multiple insect infestations, but aside from the cutworms early in the season, I was fortunate in that regard. And then, just as everyone was still hoping their pumpkins would ripen on the vine and they would get some tomatoes that were a colour other than green, we were hit with two weeks of snowfall and bitter cold in September.

One pleasant surprise in my garden (besides these) were the ‘Le Puy’ lentils I grew for the first time.  The plants are pretty, resembling some of our common vetches so much that I thought perhaps I’d get in trouble for harbouring weeds.  The deer find them attractive, as well, which definitely reduced the quantity I was able to harvest.  Compared to some of my other plants, the lentils didn’t seem to require much care – a regular watering schedule was the most important thing, and they made it through the heat better than my sweet peas and sugar peas.

I quickly realized that the timing of harvest is critical with lentils.   The pods must be picked when they are dry, but if you wait too long (a scant few minutes, it seems!), they shatter, blasting the seeds across the soil or the entire garden or into the parking lot in the street adjacent.  I swear I could hear them pinging off the streetlights before I got to them.  😉  I still managed to collect enough to enjoy a decent snack (this recipe is easy to prepare and delicious!).

LFPNormandeau

Were there any pleasant surprises in your garden this growing season? What about any old favourites that were once again reliable?

Purposes for winterizing the garden.

Winter…what lies ahead.

The skiff of white stuff that greeted me when I stepped outside this morning can mean only one thing:   it’s time to bring out the sweaters and warm woollen blankets that have been tucked away for months, and anticipate long evenings cuddled up with a good book in front of the fireplace.   The first frosts have occurred, to be followed by the icy blasts of winter cold and snow that are so familiar to those of us residing on the Prairies.Have you ever thought about what plants go through during the freezing process? It’s not pretty!  A light frost, the kind that leaves a thin film of ice on plant surfaces and burns off by mid-morning, usually results in foliage damage. Ice crystals build within the leaves, expanding and destroying the cells, which results in the tissue turning black or becoming “slimy,” then collapsing and dropping off. Any tender herbaceous plants (annuals, non-hardy perennials) that suffer widespread foliage damage die off quickly. A heavier frost that happens rapidly, over the span of mere hours, will be more catastrophic to plants:  foliage will be destroyed, and the ice crystals will attack the twigs, stems and branches of both woody and herbaceous plants. Plants that are not sufficiently hardy are killed; this is why it is very important to plant according to the hardiness zones in your region. Tough perennials and roses may die back completely to the ground as their roots go dormant.  Trees will undergo dormancy as well, and they will usually not suffer too much from the death of a few branches and twigs.

But that’s not the end of it – Calgary winters are known for their famous Chinooks, which can do staggering damage to frozen plants. The temporary warm spells cause the soil to partly thaw, only to freeze rapidly when cold weather returns. The soil heaves, disturbing dormant plant roots. Rapid thawing also expands the water in and around plant cells and can cause the wood and bark of tree trunks and branches to crack open.  Furthermore, if the warm spell is prolonged, and snow cover is insufficient, plants may suffer further injury when tender new buds emerge and are subsequently destroyed by a fresh round of icy weather.

Then there are the other weather extremes of winter:  freezing rain, drying winds, and heavy, wet snow, all capable of doing massive damage to your garden.  Huge accumulations of snow don’t usually do any damage to low-growing plants – in fact, snow is the biggest asset to your garden in the winter, as it provides an insulating cover that helps to stabilize the root temperatures of plants at soil level, and offers protection against desiccation and vicious freeze and thaw cycles. Extremely heavy snow can be particularly damaging to large conifers, however, weighing down branches and causing breakage.  Freezing rain can inflict even more severe punishment on large trees:  the coat of ice on branches and trunks is deceptively weighty and can topple entire trees or ruin hedges. While snow usually falls off the leafless branches of deciduous trees, freezing rain will affect both deciduous trees and evergreens. Desiccation, particularly of conifers, is another issue Calgary gardeners face:  prolonged cold and dry winds remove the beneficial snow blanket and may damage exposed conifers. Always give your trees a leg up before winter:  water deeply in the fall, apply anti-desiccant sprays (if desired), and wrap or tent particularly vulnerable specimens. It is easy to see why winterizing the garden is so necessary!

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I love Frank Ferragine’s “less is more” philosophy in Winterizing Your Garden – it’s exactly how I roll with my own gardening.  Nora Bryan follows suit in Faded Glory, with some excellent tips on what and what not to cut, and how to use dried leaves as protective, insulating mulch for your dormant plants.

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(The original version of this post first appeared in Calgary Gardening, October/November 2011.  Thanks, Calgary Horticultural Society, for allowing me to reprint it!).